Pictographs, histograms, bar graphs, line graphs and pie chart are graphical organisers used to represent data in clear and concise way. They are normally seen in newspapers, magazines, on television, and on the internert to present data in a clear way. Pie charts are used to compare parts of a whole. For example, a pie chart for a mathematics test score will show the ratio of pupils obtaining grades A, B, C, and D. A Pie chart uses percentages or fractions to compare the data. In a pie chart, the whole is equal to 100%, which is also 1. How did pie charts first come into use? The best-known pioneer of statistical graphics was William Playfair, who published the first "pie chart" in 1801. It was in a graphic form showing that, as compared to other countries, Britain was paying more tex. In 1859, Florence Nightingale produced the most famous graphics that illustrated what she called the "loss of an army" referring the British army sent to Crimea. As she suspected that this army was hit by disaster due to bad hygiene, she used data to persuade the Government to improve army hygiene. Just like other graphic organisers, the pie charts are used widely not only in the mass media but they are also used in the dealings of most careers. Teachers, holders, manufacturers, and people of many other careers use these graphic organisers in their daily routines. As such, it is important to prepare pupils to be able to read, understand and construct these graphs and charts. The Year % Mathematics syllabus had exposed pupils to the use of bar graphs. In Year 6, pupils are exposed to the use of pie charts.

## Tuesday, 22 November 2011

### Valume Of Liquid

Water is a form of liquid. It is an important natural source and a basic need in our lives. We use water for drinking and cooking. Factories producing drinks use water to prepare drinks. How is the amount of water measured?

Long ago, people used imperial units for volume of liquid, volume of liquid. Two pints are equivalent to a quart, and unit for volume of liquid. Unit such as barrels and hogsheads were used for larger volumes of liquid.

The instruments used today, such as pipettes, burettes, and measuring cylinders measure the volume of liquid more accurately. The standard units of measurements for volumes in the Metric System are millilitres for smalller volumes and litres for larger volumes. The symbol"ml" and "l" are used respectively. The symbol "L" can also be used for litres.

Long ago, people used imperial units for volume of liquid, volume of liquid. Two pints are equivalent to a quart, and unit for volume of liquid. Unit such as barrels and hogsheads were used for larger volumes of liquid.

The instruments used today, such as pipettes, burettes, and measuring cylinders measure the volume of liquid more accurately. The standard units of measurements for volumes in the Metric System are millilitres for smalller volumes and litres for larger volumes. The symbol"ml" and "l" are used respectively. The symbol "L" can also be used for litres.

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